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Volume V Number 10 


Editorial John Collier 1 

The Allotment System: One Example Of The 

Result 5 

Potlatch Scholarships Homer L. Morrison 7 

Organization News 10 

Indians Stranded By Break-Up Of Circus 11 

Four New Hospitals Serve Indians 12 

Salem Indian School 58 Years Old 15 

Conference Of Friends Of The Indian Discusses 

Current Problems In Indian Administration 16 

Indian Road Work As Training For Jobs H. J . Doolittle 17 

News Magazine Reports On Conference Of 
Friends Of The Indian: Commissioner 

Coll ier Comments 18 

Blackfeet Crafts Workers Ready For Summer 

Season 21 

Osage Indian Museum Dedicated May 2 - 3 • 24 

Two Recent Books On Indian Literary Heritage 25 

CCC Anniversary Celebrations Showed Wide 

Variety 26 

Buffalo Nickel To Be Minted No Longer 28 

What The Indian Service Is Doing For Its CCC 
Workers In The Five Civilized Tribes Area 

Of Oklahoma R. M. Patterson 30 

Indians In The News • ■ 34 

Seminoles Participate In Florida State Fair 35 

Forum On Indian Affairs To Be Held At Seattle. Lawrence E. Lindley 36 

CCC-ID Personnel At Five Tribes Agency, Okla- 
homa. Get First-Aid Certificates John P. 7/atson 37 

European Woman Declines To Come To America - 

Fears Indians 37 

Washington Office Visitors 39 

From A Half -Acre Garden > George H. Blakeslee 40 

Grey Owl, Well-Known Canadian Indian Natural- 
ist, Dies Roy E. Hawkinson 41 

Contests As A Spur To Home Improvement 41 

A School Plant Is Developing By Indian Labor.. Clair Forrest Maynard ... 42 
From CCC-ID Reports 43 

A Ne-v&s Sh&T; for l«yictKis 




In a recent editorial, minority rights and self-restraint 
by legislators was discussed. The occasion was a dispute which had 
arisen in one of the Plains tribes. Last week, unofficial delega- 
tions from two Plains reservations discussed their situations with 
the Indian Office staff at Washington. 

For simplicity, I mention the averments of only one of the 
delegations. It represented the full-blood and the tradition-de- 
voted element of the tribe, and it claimed that the full-bloods and 
their sympathizers were a big majority of the whole electorate. 

However, the mixed-blood group had won at the election, 
and the Council thereupon had enacted ordinances which seemed, to 
the full-bloods, too complicated, too interfering, too much like 
ostentatious white -man law. 

Together, we examined the constitution adopted by this 
tribe under the Reorganization Act. We compared it with this 
tribe's constitution which had been operative prior to the Indian 
Reorganization Act. We found that majority rule, by an electorate 
broken down into districts, was many years old in the tribe - it 
went back to the middle 1920 's at least. 

We found that the present constitution allowed a referen- 
dum on all ordinances, with the majority vote given conclusive 

We found that a majority vote preceded by petition could 
amend the constitution in any particular, and that a majority vote 
preceded by petition could cut down the powers granted in the con- 
stitution or could abolish the constitution. A majority vote could 
terminate organization, forthwith. 

By majority vote, the tribe, if it so desired, could amend 
the constitution to provide for the enactment of ordinances by popu- 
lar initiative. 

We found that under the old constitution, subordinate to 
the old law, the tribe's control over its property consisted of its 
right under a treaty to consent to the cession of land to the gov- 
ernment, through a vote of three-fourths of the electorate. 

We found that under the new constitution, controlled by 
the new law, this protection was perpetuated, and that in additior 
alienation of land to anybody was prohibited and the tribe was giv- 
en effective power in the use of its own funds. 

Why, then, were the full-blood members and their sympathiz- 
ers disturbed, and why did they feel helpless? 

The answer proved to be as simple as it is in the white 
politics of the United States. The "old-fashioned" group, assert- 
ing that they were a clear majority, added the information that 
large numbers of their own group had not voted and would not vote. 
They didn't like politics; they didn't like what the ruling group 
did; therefore, they boycotted the polls. 

Exactly this position has been maintained by millions of 
the white American electorate through the years. 

Even a presidential election, typically, brings out only 
half the eligible vote. 

Many white Americans, openly, or by their refusal to serve 
as an effective part of the electorate, invite the substitution of 
dictatorship for democracy . 

And they actually submit to dictatorship by minorities. 

Indians who refuse to vote, within their tribal governments, 
are doing precisely the same thing. They are inviting a return to 
the dictatorship of past years in Indian administration, and they 
are risking here and now the establishment of dictatorship by minor- 

This editorial uses a. particular tribe, not here named, 
as an illustration merely, and it takes for Ranted the facts as 
asserted by the unofficial delegation. Within a social pattern 
that is somewhat peculiar, universal problems of democracy - of co- 
operative living - are being faced by Indian tribes. No wonder 
some of the tribesmen axe perplexe.dl But by comparison with white 
tribesmen, they certainly have no reason to be disheartened. 

The subject of leadership is fundamental in all govern- 
ment, Indian and white alike. 

Institutions designed for the finding and training of 
leaders have been a part of the social setup of every government or 
society that has been important in history. 

A case from the white world is that of the Jesuit Order 
in its first century. The Jesuit Order sent forth into every cor- 
ner of the world missionaries who in retrospect appear as supermen 
in the light of their achievements. These missionaries were great 
in statecraft, in science, in exploration; great in the arts; but 
above all, great in their power in the management of peoples as 
widely different as the sophisticated imperial court of China and 
the primitive natives of Paraguay. 

The Jesuit Order searched for potential leaders. Then 
there was a prolonged and rigorous discipline. There was a ruthless 
elimination of the incapable. Then, upon the selected leader, mo- 
mentous responsibility was thrown. And the whole operation took 
place under the dominion of a burning and gigantic idea. 

A from the Indian world is that of the Inca.s of Peru. 
The Inca Empire compares to the Roman Empire, but there was in it 
much of the light and grace of Athens. A highly collectivized so- 
ciety, which yet was penetra.ted through and through by music, cere- 
mony, pageantry, and gentle and exquisite qualities. An ethnolo- 
gist recently summarized the training aspect thus: 

" The Inca rule brought under its sway one aft- 
er another Indian tribe or nation. 

"A ruling group selected among the Incas men 
to train. 

"Each administrator in a subjugated or alliance! 
region searched for young men of administrative promise. 

"All were brought together at the capital. 

"They were trained in history (i.e., the 
'values' of the Inca Empire) ; in military science; 
in procedures of administration; and in 'music' 
(i.e., pageantry borne by music). 

"Finally, when trained, they were initiated 
or rendered eligible through a vast festival, with 
combats, feats of prowess, feats of musical beauty. 

"The perished Inca commonwealth remains today 
the most attractive historical demonstration of out- 
post of sociocracy or of the totalitarian state. 

"When the empire was destroyed (by the Europ- 
ean conquest), the system of recruitment and train- 
ing was destroyed. 

"The consequences of the destruction of the 
system of recruitment and training are registered 
even today after four hundred years. Though the 
agrarian revolutionary movement has somewhat af- 
fected all classes of Peru, and would already be 
an accomplished revolution if mere numbers of 
sympathizers were decisive, nothing actually hap- 
pens. Leadership - executive endowment - is want- 
ing. The institution which found, trained and 
placed leadership among the Indians, across a 
thousand years, was killed, and no substitute has 
been built up. So, in Peru, speaking in terms of 
the masses, it can be said that there are no events 
any more." 

Concerning this all-vital subject of leadership, further 
suggestions will be offered later on. 

Jfy A— 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs 


There is printed below a letter from Superintendent Smith 
of the Sisseton Sioux Agency. 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 
Washington, D. C. 

Sisseton Indian Agency, 
Sisseton, South Dakota, 
April 29, 19 38. 

Dear Mr. Commissioner: 

Here is one for Ripley's "Believe It Or Not." Today I re- 
op-i'^r) a letter from Ralph Shepherd, who is an enrolled Indian on 
this reservation. Ralph asked for a copy of his mother's will in 
order that he might know what his interests in certain lands are. 
I find in checking the records that his mother, Clementine Crawford, 
willed him and another son, Howard and a daughter, Irene, one-third 
interest in certain lands. In the instant case Clementine Crawford 
inherited the interest of her husband, Anderson Crawford, in 150 
acres of land. She, in turn, willed this interest to her two sons 
and daughter . 

Luckily, we do not have to split pennies, since the apnraised 
value of her equity in the 150 acres is exactly 3 cents. This, of 
course, will permit us to show Ralph that his one-third interest in 
the appraised value in the 160 acres of land is exactly one cent. 
Please do not think that I am talking about the division of rentals 
to such land because in some cases we are Ions since past dividing 
uennies from rentals and now must count the grains. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) 'fl.C.Smith 
Suner i nt en den t • 

NOTE : Let us do some calculations on the basis of the 
letter ouoted above. Assuming an income to the heir in an amount 
of five per cent of the appraised value of the heirship land, this 
income woula oe one-twentieth of one cent per annum. As checks 
less than one dollar are not paid out, the heir's ultimate heir 
would get his first dollar check 2,000 years from the present date. 
But meantime, there would be one hundred succeeding subdivisions 
of the heirship equity, so that the date for the first dollar check 

would be past eternity. 

J. C. 































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?y Homer L. Morrison - Superintendent Of Indian Education 

Sarah Chamberlin, Of The Tulalip 

Agency, A Student At The Eastern 

College Of Education, Cheney, 


The State of Wash- 
ington is one of the three in 
which the Indian Office, under 
provisions of the Johnson- 
O'Malley Act, pays tuition to 
the State for the education 
of Indian children. There are 
several communities in Washing- 
ton, composed wholly, or in a 
large part, of Indian citizens. 
The school hoards, whose mem- 
bers are Indians, operate their 
own public schools, as do oth- 
er communities in the State. 
At the present time there are 
approximately three thousand 
Indian children enrolled in 
the public schools of Washing- 
ton. There are no government 
schools in the State. 

Since Indian lands 
are not taxed, the Indians as 
citizens formerly contributed very little toward the support of lo- 
cal schools. With the passage of the sales tax, however, and a 
drastic reduction in property taxes in the State of Washington, the 
Indian citizen became a tax-payer and is contributing to the support 
of the public school system in the same manner as other citizens 
of the State contribute. The State of Washington, recognizing this 
fact, determined to give special aids to Indian youth. 

In 1937 the State set aside a part of the money received 
from the federal government under the terms of the contract for In- 
dian education to provide scholarships for promising Indian young 
people. These scholarships were to be awarded to graduates of sen- 
ior high school classes of 1937, and each scholarship was to pro- 
vide for all expenses in one of the State institutions of higher 
learning for a period of four years. 

Five such scholarships were awarded, and in the fall of 
1937, two Indian boys and three Indian girls, carrying the hopes 
of the state's Indian communities, enrolled in five colleges. 

Caroline Nelson Of Colville, 
Attending The Western College 
Of Education, Bellingham, 

Leona Fiander Of The Yakima 

Reservation, Attending The 

Central College Of Education 

At Ellensburg, Washington. 

The selection of the honor students was made by a commit- 
tee of four Indian men who had grown up among their tribesmen, and 
who had achieved high positions in the State. The committee, se- 
lected by Homer L. Morrison, Superintendent of Indian Education in 
the State of Washington, and appointed by Stanley F. Atwood, State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, consisted of George Adams of 
Shelton, Washington, a member of the State House of Representatives; 
Ira Martin of Spokane, Washington, Chief of Police of that city; 
J. M. Phillips of Montesano, Washington, Judge of the Superior Court 
of Grays Harbor County; and Henry Sicade, a Puyallup berry farmer, 
who is also chairman of the board of directors for a boys' orphan- 
age, and was a member of the Fife Public School Board for twenty- 
five years. 

The Indian committee awarded the scholarships to the fol- 
lowing boys and girls who were graduated from Washington high schools 
in 1937: 

Henry Bushman of the Colville Reservation, 
who was student president in the Omak High School. 

Charles James of the Swinomish Reservation, a 
graduate of the La Conner High School. 

Leona Fiander of the Yakima Reservation, vale- 
dictorian of the White Swan Hi£i School. 

Caroline Nelson of the Colville Reservation, 
valedictorian of the Curlew High School. 

Sarah Chamberlain, an honor student and a grad- 
uate of the Sumner Hi^i School . 

After the scholarships were awarded by the committee, the 
Indian hoys and girls were arranged according to their standing by 
grades. The highest -ranking student was given the first choice, 
and in the order of their rank the others were given their choice 
of colleges . 

Henry Bushman was given first choice. He selected the 
Washington State College at Pullman. He will do his major work in 
business administration and economics. 

Charles James selected the. University of Washington at 
Seattle. The people of the Swinomish Reservation, Charles' home, 
have organized under the Indian Reorganization Act, and have entered 
business via the fishing industry. Their project is growing in size 
and success and the people of the reservation realize that they will 
need trained business leadership. They are keenly interested in the 
fact that Charles won this scholarship. They have encouraged him 
to take up business administration and economics with the definite 
purpose of coming back to the reservation and helping in the manage- 
ment of their affairs. The University is only about eighty miles 
from his home; consequently Charles spends his holidays at home and 
keeps in close touch with life on the reservation. 

Leona Fiander had third choice and selected the Central 
College of Education in Ellensburg. Leona will choose a major in 
some type of teaching work at the end of her first two years of 





(^ ' v. m* 

Henry Bushman, From The 
Colville Reservation, Attend- 
ing Washington State College 
In Pullman. 

Charles James Of The Swinomish 
Reservation, Washington, At The 
University Of Washington At 
• Seattle. 

Caroline Nelson, with fourth choice, chose the Western 
College of Education at Bellinghara- This also is a teachers* col- 
lege and Caroline will select her major in some type of teaching 
after her first two years. 

Sarah Chamberlain, ranking fifth, went to the Eastern 
Washington College of Education at Cheney. This is a teachers' 
college and Sarah will select her major after two years in this 

All the students are making satisfactory adjustments in 
their college work. The State of Washington believes that these 
scholarships will do two things for the Indian student: first, they 
will give a selected few an opportunity to prepare themselves for 
better service to their own people within the State; and second, 
the scholarships themselves are incentives to keep a greater number 
of Indian youth in the high schools of the State. 

The name selected by the committee of Indian men is "The 
Potlatch Scholarship." The potlatch is an old feast of the Indians 
of the Northwest, in which a man gave his property to his visitors. 
He was considered the noblest among the Indians who made the great- 
est number of gifts, but Potlatch had another significance: it re- 
quired the recipients of these gifts to give a feast in their turn 
and to give away to others that which they had received. 

The State of Washington plans to offer one additional 
scholarship in 1938, and one each year thereafter, so long as the 
federal government continues to pay funds to the State for the ed- 
ucation of Indian children. 


Constitution Elections : 

Yes No 

April 16 Standing Rock Indians of North Dakota ... 590 857 

April 21 Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma 9 7 

Charter Elections : 

Ye 8 No 
April 16 Quechan Tribe of the Fort Yuma Reserva- 
tion in Arizona 117 154 

April 16 Standing Rock' Indians of North Dakota ... 556 29 

April 28 Pawnee Tribe of Oklahoma 180 62 



The frontispiece shows a group of Sioux talking over 
their difficulties - brought on by the sudden bankruptcy in Wash- 
ington of Colonel Tim McCoy and Associates, Inc., "wild-west" show 
and circus, in Washington early in May- 

Sixty-five Indians - Navajos, Hopis, Sioux and Southern 
Cheyennes - were stranded when the organization suddenly went into 
receivership, after a difficult period during which wages were not 
paid to employees. The Sioux group, which had negotiated a con- 
tract with the show through their superintendent, W. 0. Roberts, 
was protected by a thousand-dollar bond which had been deposited 
at the Agency at Pine Ridge, South Dakota. This sum proved to be 
exactly enough to get the group and their families back home; the 
others, however, had made their arrangements individually and were 
without this protection. The total amount owing to the entire 
group of Indians in unpaid salary is $751.28. Claims for this sum 
have been filed by the Indian Office with the receivers of the com- 
pany, but since the Indians constitute only a fraction of the to- 
tal number of creditors, there is considerable doubt as to the time 
and the amount of any recovery which can be made. Indian employees 
of the 101 Ranch, which broke up under somewhat similar circumstances 
several years ago, have never been paid. 

This incident emphasizes the wisdom of making negotiations 
for employment which involves traveling at long distances away from 
home through agency officials, rather than as individuals. Agency 
officials speaking for a group of Indians can insist that protec- 
tive clauses be inserted in contracts. 

Among those in the photograph are: John Collier, Commis- 
sioner, presiding; F. H. Daiker, Assistant to the Commissioner; 
Adelbert Thunder Hawk, secretary to Congressman Francis Case; Lone 
Elk, Door Changing, Charles Thunder Bull, Joe Elk Boy, Short Bull, 
Return From Scout, American Horse, Black Horn, Lizzie Charging, 
David Charging and John Sitting Bull. 


The photograph which appears on the cover page of this 
issue is a scene on the Papago desert. Sells Agency, Arizona. 



Four new hospitals operated by the Indian Service have 
been recently opened, or are about to be opened, to Indian patients: 
the Sioux Sanatorium at Rapid City, South Dakota; the William W. 
Hastings Hospital at Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the Choctaw- Chickasaw San- 
atorium at Talihina, Oklahoma; and the Fort Defiance Hospital in 
northeastern Arizona on the Navajo Reservation. All except the 
Sioux Sanatorium were Public Works projects. 

The Sioux Sanatorium, Located On The Grounds 

Of The Old Boarding School Near Rapid City, 
South Dakota. The Plant Was Designed By The 
Indian Service Construction Division. 

The Sioux Sanatorium near Rapid City, South Dakota, was 
finished in November, equipped during the following months and was 
opened to patients about May 1. It provides for 114 patients and 
includes complete modern equipment, such as a specially designed 
x-ray and fluroscopic room, a film developing room, an operating 
suite, a dental clinic and laboratory and special treatment room6. 
The plant includes also quarters for nurses and other personnel, a 
heating plant and other service equipment. The hospital, which is 
designed for treatment of tuberculosis patients, is primarily in- 
tended for Sioux Indians, but will be available for other Indians 
as well. 


Southeast Wing Of The William W. Hastings Hospital 

The William W. Hastings Hospital at Tahlequah, Oklahoma, 
was substantially completed hy October 1937, but was not complete- 
ly equipped and opened until early in May. It has a capacity of 
69 beds, with operating facilities and x-ray and laboratory facil- 
ities. There are quarters for employees, including provision for 
twelve nurses and a doctor. This is a general hospital, intended 
primarily for treatment of Indians of the Five Civilized Tribes. 
This plant was designed by the Indian Service Construction Division . 

The Main Kitchen Of The Fort Defiance Hospital 
(Photograph By W. T. Mullarky, Gallup, New Mexico) 


The Fort Defiance Hospital At Fort Defiance, Arizona. 
It Is Built Of Native Red Sandstone Quarried 
Near Window Rock. 

The Fort Defiance Hospital, begun in March 1937, and to 
be opened for patients June 20, 1938, has room for 136 patients. 
It is an extremely well-equipped modern hospital, including an 
out-patient department with treatment rooms and dispensary, an op- 
erating suite plus an extra emergency operating room, laboratories 
and obstetrical department, an x-ray room, rooms which can be iso- 
lated for special types of cases, a dental clinic and an eye, ear, 
nose and throat clinic. This plant was designed by the Indian 
Service Construction Division. 

Nurses' Quarters, Choctaw- Chickasaw Sanatorium, 
Talihina, Oklahoma. 


Native Stone And Brick Were Used For The Choctaw- 
Chickasaw Sanatorium At Talihina, Oklahoma. The 
Main Building, Viewed From The North. 
(Schmidt, Garden, & Erickson, Architects.) 

The Choctaw-Chickasaw Sanatorium at Talihina, Oklahoma, 
is by far the largest construction project ever undertaken by the 
Indian Office. It is not one huilding, but a group, in which the 
existing hospital plant has been remodeled and made a part of the 
much larger new plant. The main hospital, infirmary, ambulatory 
wards and power house form the main block; the nurses' quarters and 
doctors' quarters are in separate groups; there is also a building 
housing the recreation hall and dining room; and a garage. The to- 
tal capacity of the completed plant is 232 beds. 

This hospital is designed primarily for the treatment of 
Oklahoma Indians having tuberculosis, but will provide about 75 beds 
for general purposes. 


The Salem Indian School at Chemawa, Oregon, which this 
year celebrates the fifty-eighth anniversary of its organization, 
is one of the oldest schools being operated by the Indian Service, 
being second in age only to Sequoyah, which was founded in 1872 by 
the Cherokee Nation. Charles E. Larson, who himself entered the 
school in 1893 at the age of ten, gives the derivation of the school's 
name. It comes, says Mr. Larson, from the Chinook language - "che", 
meaning new , and "wawa", meaning talk - Through error, the word was 
changed to Chemawa. 




The Conference of Friends of the Indian, called by the 
Joint Indian Committee of the Home Missions Council, and the Council 
of Women for Home Missions, by the Indian Eights Association and by 
the American Association of Indian Affairs met at Atlantic City 
April 22 and 23. 

Most of the discussions centered around four issues: the 
use of liquor by Indians, the Navajo problem, the Indian Reorganiza- 
tion Act and the cultural and religious aspects of the present ad- 
ministration's policy. 

After discussion of the prohibition of intoxicating liquor 
among Indians, the conference adopted a statement urging more thorough 
enforcement of the law, and suggesting also a more systematic educa- 
tional anti -alcoholic campaign in government and mission schools and 
by mission agencies. The proposal was also made that the govern- 
ment concentrate its efforts toward strict law enforcement on one 
particular reservation as a demonstration of the potential effective- 
ness of such a policy. A suggestion for amendment of the Federal 
law to permit an experiment in the controlled sale of liquor on a 
given reservation on the initiative and under the direction of the 
tribal council was discussed thoroughly and lengthily; this sugges- 
tion of policy, however, was removed from the final resolution by 
a narrow margin of votes. 

The Conference adopted a statement to the effect that it 
was opposed to the repeal of the Indian Reorganization Act, but 
suggested amendments which would liberalize its terms to make pos- 
sible the use of the Act's educational loan funds by members of 
tribes which have rejected the Act. An amendment was also suggested 
which would modify the credit provisions of the Act along the lines 
of the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act, under whose terms loans can be 
made to cooperative groups as well as to organized tribes which 
have organized and incorporated. 

In the course of the interesting discussion of the admin- 
istration's policy toward cultural and religious freedom, Dean Davis 
W. Clark of the Episcopal missions of South Dakota pointed out his 
belief that the policy of encouraging preservation of the values 
of the Indian spiritual and cultural heritage was in effect being 


distorted "by the inability of some Indian Service employees to dis- 
tinguish between the "basic spiritual and cultural values and the 
less meaningful externals; the result, said Dean Clark, was that the 
policy had fostered an outbreak of almost continuous dancing having 
little to do with the real values of Indian culture and tradition, 
while many of the real values still lay hidden. The Conference 
adopted a statement proposing that all agencies join in an effort 
to create a program of broader and saner recreational opportunities 
for Indians. 

There was a long discussion of Navajo affairs, in which 
it was said by many speakers that the situation was critical be- 
cause of the failure of the "Indian Service administration and the 
Navajos to understand one another. It was also brought out in the 
discussion that one of the perturbing factors in the situation was 
the activity of non-Indians in supporting opposition to the basic 
stock reduction program, and in leading Indians to believe that 
many white people would join with them to frustrate the administra- 
tion's policies. After discussion, the problem was referred to a 
continuation committee for further study. 

The Conference discussed the obstacles in the path of more 
effective Indian administration, and made a number of suggestions 
for the improvement of Indian Service and governmental procedure. 

By H. J. Doolittle, District Engineer, Roads Division 

W. W. Beatty, Director of Education in the Indian Service, 
has said that in training young Indians the Service "must offer 
such complete opportunity for continuing practical experience that 
the work of our students will be well-done regardless of race." 
The training which more than ten thousand Indians are receiving in 
road work is indeed an opportunity for continuing practical experi- 
ence. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1937, 10,783 Indians 
were employed by the Service on road work. Their supervisors take 
pride in giving them sound training. 

Through cooperation with state, county and WPA road units, 
a number of Indians trained in Road Division work are taking their 
places with white men in outside jobs. There is generally a local 
market for experienced road workers, and it is becoming evident, 
throu/^i specific cases, our men can compete in their local labor 
markets with the best in their field- 



The following quotation is taken from the May 2, 1938 is- 
sue of "Time", which comments on the Conference of Friends Of The 
Indian, described on page 16. 

"Hardly more Uian a generation ago, U. S. 
churches still had a stirring sense of the U. S. 
frontier. Much of their consecrated vigor derived 
from their missionary work among TJ. S. Indians. To- 
day the welfare of the nation's 337,000 red men 
lies less with the churches than with the Govern- 
ment, particularly with Secretary of the Interior 
Ickes and zealous Indian Commissioner John Collier. 
Last week in Atlantic City, missionary chagrin ov- 
er, this state of affairs spilled over. At a Con- 
ference of Friends Of The Indian - representing 
two secular Indian associations and Indian mission 
workers of 28 Protestant churches - a report cited 
lawlessness, drinking, vice, illegal marriages in 
Indian communities, blamed the "hands-off policy" 
of the Government . 

n 'During all the years prior to the present Ad- 
ministration, ' said the report, 'the story of the 
progress of the red men in adopting standards of 
Christian civilization stands out ... as an impres- 
sive illustration of the effectiveness of coopera- 
tive effort and sympathetic understanding between 
the forces representing the church in America and 
the governmental agencies.' ?y contrast, the re- 
port cited Commissioner Collier's well-known policy 
of helping Indians to 'turn back to their so-called 
ancient cultures, and to revive pagan practices and 
ceremonies of the pre-Columbian era.' This 'appears 
to the Christian forces of America to be a denial 
of the right of Indians to enter into an apprecia- 
tion of their Christian heritage, implicit in their 
status as American citizens.' 

"Neither Indian Commissioner Collier nor Sec- 
retary Ickes showed up in Atlantic City, as the con- 
ference had hoped, to defend their work. Mr. Collier 
sent a message, in which he ducked religious issues, 


said his bureau is hampered by 'a thousand antiq- 
uities', begged the cooperation of alert citizens, 
for 'Indians will always have neighbors who stand 
to profit hy despoiling whatever little property 
they may have, and debauching them as human beings 


Commissioner Collier wrote the editor of "Time" under date 
of May 4, as follows: 

"It was a pleasure to read your news report 
•Indians' Friends' in Time's issue of May 2. 

"I believe it is ohvious that your correspond- 
ent and your editors recognized the fundamental 
fact that so-called 'Indian lawlessness', etc., did 
not begin with the 'hands-off ' policy of present- 
day Indian Service administration of Indian affairs. 
To us, of course, it is equally patent that the mor- 
als of Indians should not and cannot be isolated 
from the morals of entire communities and areas in 
which the Indians reside. 

"I appreciated also your reference to a fact, 
not always understood, namely that religious liber- 
ty applies to all peoples in the United States and 
not merely to Christians. 

"Incidentally, you will want to know that the 
report from which your correspondent quoted was not 
presented at the meeting at all. * 

"Secretary Ickes and myself were well-repre- 
sented at the conference by Walter V. Woehlke, As- 
sistant to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Mr. 
Woehlke and the delegates engaged in a thoroughly 
constructive discussion of many problems of Indian 
administration and the advice of the delegates was 
solicited and received. 

"I am attaching for your information a copy of 
the resolutions adopted by the conference. 

Sincerely yours, 
John Collier, Commissioner." 

*Note: The Indian Office has been informed that Dr. Mark 
Dawber, who is Executive Secretary of the Home Missions Council, 
Oliver LaJarge, President of the American Association on Indian Af- 
fairs and Jonathan Steere, President of the Indian Rights Associa- 
tion, have written to "Time" protesting the quotation from materia] 
which was not presented at the Conference at all. 



A Family On The Pechanga 
Reservation: Their 
Old House. 

The New Home Built For 
This Family With 

Rehabilitation Funds 



Nicholas Chapaxosa And His Garden - 
Another Rehabilitation Project. 


Blackfeet Agency, Browning, Montana. 

(This article was prepared from material furnished by 
Mrs. Jessie Donaldson Schultz, Community Worker at Blackfeet Agency, 
Montana, and by Mrs. Ethel B. Arnett, Director, Division of Educa- 
tion and Recreation, Works Progress Administration of Montana.) 

Plans for the summer season in the Blackfeet Indian Craft 
Shop have been completed by Mrs. Jessie Donaldson Schultz, Commun- 
ity Worker, and other sponsors of this unique project. 

The renaissance in Blackfeet crafts, which is being paral- 
leled by an interest as well in the stories, songs and traditions 
of the tribe, has come about in less than two years. The shop it- 
self was in operation only one month during the 1936 summer season 
and three months during the past summer. It has operated on a very 
modest budget, and, moreover, has been obliged to move three times 
during its short life. Nevertheless the shop had cleared, by the 
end of March, 1933, $4,250. 

The movement began in the summer of 1936 when a small 
group of Indian women on the Two Medicine River (Mary Little Bull, 
Mary Little Plume, Angel ine Williamson, Cecile Horn, Nellie Buel, 
Cecile Tail Feathers, Rose Big Beaver and Margaret Middle Calf) 


encouraged by Mrs. Schultz, made costumes to be sold at the Sun 
Ceremony encampment. Their experiment turned out well; the women 
learned something about what tourists wanted; and they continued 
with their work. Three other women in Browning - Louise Berry- 
child, Gertrude No Chief and Annie Calf Looking - were also among 
the pioneers in the Blackfeet crafts movement. 

In the summer of 1936 the venture of a Bla.ckfeet crafts 
shop was undertaken. Superintendent Charles L. Graves arranged 
for the use of the old tribal council room as a shop, Mrs. Schultz 
called upon the Indians to bring in their crafts articles, and the 
enterprise got under way for a brief season. Such promise had 
been shown during the brief season of the shop's existence that the 
TO? A Division of Education, under Mrs. Ethel B. Arnett, Director, 
assigned two Indian workers, Louise Berrychild and Mary Little Bull, 
to teach crafts work and to help start handicraft projects. The 
organization of Indians into local crafts groups paved the way for 
the formation of the Blackfeet Cooperative Society in April 1937. 
Now there are ten strong local clubs, with a total membership of 

In January 1938, a loan of $5,000 was made to the Crafts 
Shop from rehabilitation funds to finance purchases of crafts goods 
and a grant of $2,500 for building and equipment. fPA has added 
another teacher, Agnes Chief -Ail-Over. 

Crafts club members have worked enthusiastically during 
the winter. Members have met with the instructors to discuss ideas, 
to agree on standards of work, and to look into old ways of making 
the fine Blackfeet crafts articles. Standards of work have risen 
to a very high level, through the process of careful selection of 
articles for sale, and of insistence upon meticulous standards of 
authenticity and good workmanship. 

In addition to the three Indian teachers being paid by 
the TUPA Division of Education and Recreation, help is also being 
provided through four WPA Indian workers who are doing research in 
ancient Blackfeet designs. Louis Randall, Victor Pepion, Albert 
Racine and Cecile Crow Feathers are now working on designs of vari- 
ous types - pictographs found on robes and rocks, designs found on 
costumes and those on painted tepees. 

Blackfeet crafts embrace a wide variety of articles. Bows 
and arrows and quivers have been made this winter by James Bad Mar- 
riage, Shorty Whitegrass, Last Rider, After Buffalo, Stabs-By Mis- 
take, and others; spears with large flint heads are also being made, 
rhe arrow points are old ones, actually used in shooting buffalo, 
found on the reservation in so-called buffalo traps. Dolls dressed 
in authentic and carefully made costumes, moccasins, bags and coin 


purses are alBO made. Suede and buckskin jackets have been especial- 
ly popular with tourists. The jackets are beautifully cut and tai- 
lored, are trimmed with beaded designs, and have buttons of hand- 
carved elk horn. These jackets and boleros, and hats, skirts and 
bags as well, are being sold at Abercrombie & Fitch, a well-known 
sports shop in New York, and a large number have been sold through 
mail orders. 

This past winter Arrow Top-Knot, an eighty -year-old In- 
dian, made a supply of the traditional wood and rawhide dishes, 
all painted with the secred paint and all made in the form of some 
animal. He is one of the best sources of information about ancient 

One of the oldest of the arts of the Blackfeet Indians 
is quill work. This work was done by the Indians before the easier 
bead work came into fashion. When the Indians were asked to do 
quill work for sale to tourists, they refused because the ancient 
ceremony of preparing the quills had been forgotten and they felt 
that unless the quills were prepared with the correct ceremony, 
the participants would be blinded. Some of the Indian workers, how- 
ever, learned from an older Indian how the ceremony of preparing 
quills should be performed, and for the first time in many years, 
the quills were prepared in the age-old manner tnis past season. 

Indian paintings and carvings are also sold in the shop. 
Among the younger Indians whose work shows promise is Mike Swims- 
Under, whose carvings in wood were sold in the shop last summer. 
Also available in the shop are examples of the wood carvings of 
John Clark, well-known Blackfeet deaf-mute artist, who has his own 
shop at one of the entrances to Glacier Park. 

Last summer the craft shop moved to new quarters at St. 
Mary's Lake. An old log cabin, originally the home of the famous 
white trader and pioneer, Jack Monroe, was procured by Superinten- 
dent Graves and moved to a strategic location on a highway within 
the park. It has been repaired and is ready for the coming tourist 

The Blackfeet have a splendid tourist market open to 
them in their proximity to Glacier National Park. Until the past 
two years, much of the goods sold in the Park has been imported, 
and non-Indian in origin. Now the Blackfeet are ready to supply 
handmade goods c' hi*h quality. 



A Portrait Of Sylvester 

Tinker, Osage, One Of A 

Group Of Tribal Portraits 

Painted For The Osage 


The only tribal museum in the 
United States opened when the Osage In- 
dian Museum was dedicated in Pawhuska, 
Oklahoma, May 2 and 3. 

The museum's collection of 
Osage crafts, ceremonial objects and 
historical records was begun some fif- 
teen years ago, when the Osage Tribal 
Council bought the Osage collection of 
John Bird, former trader. In addition 
to hunting equipment and weapons, old 
costumes, and objects of religious sig- 
nificance, the museum is acquiring old 
documents, photographs and historical 
books dealing with tribal history. 
Last year sound recordings were made 
of an Osage radio program which was ar- 
ranged by Joseph Mathews, tribal coun- 
cilman and author. These recordings 
of Osage songs, speeches in the Osage 
tongue by several distinguished full- 
bloods of the tribe, and English ver- 
sions of Osage legends are now a part 
of the museum's collection. 

Miss Lillian Mathews, cura- 
tor of the museum, has had charge of 
indexing and arranging the museum's 
varied possessions. Gifts of all kinds, 
which have included cherished family 
heirlooms, have been donated by inter- 
ested tribesmen. 

One feature of the collection 
is a group of portraits of well-known 
Osages, chosen as representative types 

of the tribe. These were done as a WPA project by Todros Geller, 

Chicago artist. 

The simple, attractive, sandstone building which 
houses the collection is a restoration, made through a WPA grant, 
of an old tribal chapel building in Pawhuska. The original cupola 
and bell which for two generations called young Osages to services 
were replaced on the new building. 

•Photograph by Andrew T. Kelley. 


This museum is the only recent example of a systematic 
and permanent pooling of its records and historical relics by an 
Indian tribe. Through this collection, the story of the develop- 
ment of this great Plains stock, from the first known records dat- 
ing back to the days of Marquette, will be kept as a possession of 
the tribe for all time. 

The dedication of the museum on May 2 and 3 was the oc- 
casion for a colorful celebration in Pawhuska, which included 
speeches by older members of the tribe, a parade, Indian games, 
and a barbecue. 


SINGING- FOR POWER , by Ruth Murray Underhill. 
University of California Press, Berkeley. $2.00. 

"Singing for Power" is a skillful rendition in simple and 
musical English of part of the magnificent Papago heritage of song. 
Rituals for rain, for "singing up the corn", for war and for warding 
off evil are described, among others, and the songs which were an 
integral part of them are set down. The study of which this book 
is a part was made under the direction of the Humanities Council of 
Columbia University in 1931 and 1933. The delightful drawings of 
ancient Papago life were made by two Indian boys - Avellino Herera 
of Sia Pueblo and Ben Pavisook, a Ute. 

Another book by Dr. Underhill, "First Penthouse Dwellers 
Of America", has recently been published by J. J. Augustin. It 
will be reviewed in an early issue. 

LEffigggS OF THE LONGHOUSE , by Jesse Cornplanter. 

J. P. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia and New York. $2.00 

This is a book of Seneca stories, "told to Sah-Nee-Weh, 
the White Sister" - Mrs. Walter Henricks of Pen Yan, New York, a 
white friend and neighbor. Jesse Cornplanter, who is a descendant 
of the Corn Planter who knew George Washington, lives on the Tona- 
wanda Reservation in New York. The legends, which are in the form 
of letters to the author's white friend, deal with such varied 
topics as the origin of the world, with "the little people", with 
good and evil legendary figures and what happened to them. 

The introduction is by Carl Carmer, author of "Listen 
for a Lonesome Drum." The illustrations were drawn by Cornplanter, 
teller of the stories. 



"Indians At Work" has received so many descriptions of 
local celebrations of the fifth anniversary of the CCC held on 
April 5 that it would be impossible to print them all even in con- 
densed form. Parades, rodeos, barbecues and exhibits were held all 
over the Indian country. Excerpts from three of the accounts fol- 

Fallon Reservation , Carson Agency , Nevada • "The rodeo 
was a success and everyone had a fine time, although the first man 
out on a horse was bucked off and broke his arm; but even this 
served its purpose, as the enrollees had organized a first-aid squad 
for just such an emergency and they immediately took charge of the 
situation. A doctor among the spectators set the broken arm with 
the help of the first-aiders. Later he told me that the first-aid 
crew was exceptionally well-trained." By Frank M. P archer , Proj - 
ect Manager , CCC-ID . 

Tru^ton Canon Agency , Peach Springs , Arizona . "In the 
middle of our program, there came an interesting break. An old 
man, blind and partly lame, stood up and in faltering tones asked 
if he might speak. He was Kate Krozier, Indian scout in the days 

Huya, Kate Krozier And Jim Mahone, Elders Among The 

Truxton Canon Hualapais. 


following the Civil War. In a few minutes he told what he remem- 
bered of the old days, and made a comparison of what, in spite of 
his blindness, he conceives to be the present. Not for long will 
these ancient voices be heard." By Erik W. Allstrom , CCC-ID Camp 
Superintendent ♦ 

Fort Berthold Agency . North Dakota (From "The Minot Daily 
Mews**, Minot, N. D.): "Indian youths, too, have their Civilian Con- 
servation Corps, and the Elbowoods Camp on the Fort Berthold Reserva- 
tion, which has an enrollment of nearly ICO, presented an elaborate 
program and an exhibition of its work when visitors were entertained 
there this week at the annual achievement day. 

"The program was in charge of Charles Bird, Project Man- 
ager for the camp, who came here from the Blackfeet Reservation in 
Montana, when this project was started in 1936. 

"Visitors at the camp Tuesday were shown displays of In- 
dian relics, arts and crafts undertaken by Indian youths, engineer- 
ing and construction work done on the reservation, blacksmi thing, 
carpentry, mechanics, forestry and athletics. These exhibits con- 
stituted an exposition of the educational program which is being 
carried on at the camp for Indian youths. 

"One activity of the Indian CCC not represented in this 
exposition was adult education. Adult Indians who have not previ- 
ously had opportunity to learn to read and write, as a result of 
this work, are signing their names in writing now instead of mark- 
ing ' x 1 or using fingerprint signatures. 

"The show of old time Indian articles, sponsored by the 
Elbowoods post of the American Legion, was in charge of Eli Perkins 
It included a large tepee and small tepee, an Indian fish trap, 
garments, bead work and other things. 

"When the various displays were judged, that on engineer- 
ing, which was in charge of Frank Howard, was awarded first place; 
an exhibit of mechanics, with John H. Wolf in charge, ranked second; 
and a safety-first demonstration, in charge of Ben G-oodbird was 

"The principal speech of the day was made by Peter Beau- 
champ, a member of the tribal council, who said that Indians are 
learning now to provide their own livelihood and to engage in profit- 
able pursuits which may be available to them on the reservation. 
He complimented the present federal administration on its Indian 



At the end of June, which marks the close of the fiscal 
year, the buffalo-Indian nickel will be coined no more, according 
to the Office of the Director of the United States Mint. 

More than a billion - to be exact, 1,210,796,248 - of 
this coin of distinctive American design had been minted by the 
end of March of this year. 

The Indian uickel, which was first struck off in 1913, 
was designed by James Earle Fraser, eminent Minnesota sculptor, 
among whose other well-known works are "The End Of The Trail", and 
a number of pieces in Washington, D. C, including the John Eric- 
cson Monument, the bust of Theodore Roosevelt in the Senate Cham- 
ber of the Capitol, the sculpture on the Constitution Avenue side 
of the new Archives Building, the two seated figures at the front 
of the Supreme Court Building and the Alexander Hamilton Monument 
on the south side of the Treasury Building. 

There have been a number of versions as to the identity 
of the Indian whose profile was shown on the nickel. Mr. Fraser 
cleared up the controversy by a letter to the Indian Office in 1931 • 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 

United States Department of the Interior, 

Washington, D. C 

Dear Sir: 

The Indian head on the buffalo nickel is not a di- 
rect portrait of any particular Indian, but was made from 
several portrait busts which I did of Indians. As a mat- 
ter of fact, I used three different heads. I remember two 
of the men: one was Irontail, the best Indian head I can 
remember; the other was Two Moons; and the third I cannot 
recall . 

I have never seen Two Guns Whitecalf , nor used him in 
any way, although he has a magnificent head. I can easily 
understand how he was mistaken in thinking that he posed 
for me. A great many artists have modeled and drawn from 
him, and it was only natural for him to believe that one 
of them was the designer of the nickel. I am sure he is 


undoubtedly honestly of the opinion that his portrait is 
on the nickel. 

I am particularly interested in Indian affairs, hav- 
ing aa a boy lived in South Dakota. I hope their affairs 
are progressing favorably. 

Sincerely yours, 

J. E. Fraser 

One of the models mentioned by Mr. .Fraser - Irontail - 
was a Sioux; the other, Two Moons, was an old hereditary chief of 
the Cheyennes. Two Guns Whitecalf was a Blackf eet . All of these 
colorful figures are dead. 

The design of the new nickel, chosen from among the 390 
models submitted, was made by Felix Schlag of Chicago. The head 
of Thomas Jefferson will be shown on the obverse; the reverse will 
depict Uonticello, the home Jefferson designed and built for him- 
self in Virginia. 



B* » ' "^ 

The photograph above shows the curtain for the Indian 

Community Building at the Tonawanda Reservation, New York, which 
was painted by Eric Krause of the Federal Arts Group in Rochester. 
The material was purchased by the Social Welfare Department and 
the labor was furnished by the Works Progress Administration. Dr. 
Arthur C. Parker and Mrs. Walter A. Henri cks helped with suggestions 
for the design. 


By R. M. Patterson, Supervisor, 
CCC-ID Enrollee Program 

This is the situation surrounding our welfare program 
for CCC-ID enrollees in the Five Civilized Tribes Area: 

The jurisdiction includes all or parts of 40 of Oklahoma's 
76 counties; it is about 225 miles deep and an average width of per- 
haps a hundred miles. There are five tribes all speaking different 
languages (although English is spoken by the majority of the Indians) 
The land is practically all allotted. It is a corn and cotton coun- 
try, with some stock raising also. 

The need for employment is urgent, so the payroll going to 
our average enrollment of 500 means help throughout the area. About 
30 per cent are employed at Bull Hollow Camp, 75 miles northeast of 
Muskogee; 25 per cent work out from Blanco, a hundred miles south 
of Muskogee; about 5 per cent work at Tuskahoma, where the ancient 
Choctaw Council House is being restored as a community center; and 
the remaining 50 per cent work out from Stilwell and Tahlequah. 
Some of the CCC-ID projects center around boarding camps; others 
draw on men living at home. 

In this large and varied area the CCC-ID is not only try- 
ing to accomplish certain physical projects; it is also carrying on 
a program of welfare, instruction and recreation for its Indian 
workers. Moreover, it is trying to tie in this program with the 
economic and social needs of the whole Five Civilized Tribes Area. 

What Five Tribes Enrollees Learn 

Briefly, the plan of training may be described as a four- 
point program embracing the following kinds of instruction: 

1. Project training , derived from camp and 
job operations and the development of skills therefrom, 
such as clerical work, road-building skills, including 
stone masonry, auto mechanics, machinery operation and 
repair, blacksmithing, carpentry and concrete work. 
Important also is incidental training in erosion belt 


farming techniques: the gully and erosion-control proj- 
ects which the men see going on all around them are fine 
training in revegetation, contour farming and strip-crop- 
ping, from which every Oklahoma farmer can profit. 

2- Vocational training : Non-job-connected 
skills, such as subsistence gardening, agronomy and live- 
stock management. 

3« Cultural training : Both academic and avoca- 
tional work in native arts and crafts and training in 

4. Health training , such as training in person- 
al hygiene, principles of nutrition, practical sanitation 
and safety training (including safe driving technique). 

Welfare And Recreation Programs 

What of welfare work and recreation for enrollees? They 
have stepped off on the right foot at Five Tribes: their scheme 
of things does not presuppose a large number of special facilities; 
it takes the situation "as is" and does something about it. 

One specific aid to an intelligent welfare program in 
this area are good records. Two simple forms are kept. These are 
factual, practical and reasonably complete. They show at a glance 
the background, economic situation and employment record of en- 
rolled men. A part of the record material summarizes the enrollee's 
story of placement and training - what was done to serve his needs 
- and forms the basis for the enrollee's certificate of proficiency, 
as authorized by regulations whenever a good worker is discharged. 
At discharge, a summary of the ex-enrollee ' s cumulative record is 
filed with the agency employment office. 

Another phase of welfare work includes individual guidance 
and counsel. - periodical informal interviews in which the enrolled 
man's personal problems, needs and interests are discussed by a 
friendly adviser. This procedure gives valuable insight in in- 
service placement and training. 

One phase of the welfare program - a demonstration of the 
acquisition and use of income - is illustrated by the program at 
Bull Hollow Camp. This beautiful camp has adjoining it a 200-acre 
level creek bottom which will become a large garden managed by en- 
rolled men during leisure time. Here, we hope, will develop a power- 
ful silent argument that wages are no final substitute for a home 
ranch. Enrolled in the camp there will be some 150 hand-picked 


young men. each of whom will receive $5.00 spending money per month, 
the remainder to go to his family or into savings. Sound training 
for this group, plus the chance for savings, should develop some 
fine Indian citizens. 

Twenty young Indians, through -a cooperative arrangement 
with the Army, were selected for special training for a period of 
three months at the Rush Springs Junior CCC camp, many of them in 
key understudy positions in the camp office, supply room, infirmary 
and mess. 


T. t. 

Indian CCC Men Working On The Remodeling Of The Choctaw Council 
House Near Tuskahoma, Oklahoma. 

The recreational plan for the Five Civilized Tribes jur- 
isdiction includes competitive sports, inter-project teams, outside 
games, home talent entertainments, meetings at local centers, visual 
education and entertainment, indoor games, hooks and periodicals, 
newspapers and radio, group hobbies and the like. 

Who Runs The Program 

A welfare program such as the one described above does 
not develop out of thin air; it is the result of careful planning 


and cooperation on the part of a large number of people. The chan- 
nels are obvious and simple: Superintendent Landman reserves, of 
course, administrative decisions and approvals to himself and is 
active in the planning and coordinating phases; Senior Project 
Manager H. C. Miller is in charge of CCC-ID activity as a whole; 
aiding him is Camp Assistant 0. G-. McAninch in charge of the en- 
rollee program of welfare, instruction and recreation. 

It is proposed to arrange occasional agency staff confer-, 
ences to keep in touch with this program and to set up a small stand- 
ing committee composed of, say, the heads of Education, Extension 
and CCC-ID divisions, plus, perhaps, other members who will help 
to maintain a wise balance between the material and human values 
in the total jurisdictional land-use problem. 

The feeling of civic responsibility, of growth, of work, 
is evident all down the line. 

Twentieth Century Indians 

Here is an example of the development of this responsibility. 
Nobody could witness the boss of the Choctaw crew bringing his tired 
men into Blanco; kindly and firmly turning down two men who wanted 
immediate store credit on the strength of a few days' enrollment; 
saying "yes, your're on" to the two men who had hiked sixteen miles 
for that good word and immediately started hiking back - almost 
double-timing because the chance to work had lifted their hearts; 
arranging with a visiting official to have some condemned salvage 
tentage trucked out to the family camped under the cliff in the 
open because the man had just enrolled and moved in near Project 
#31; and finishing his day by organizing an impromptu concert (two 
guitars, one banjo and a fiddle) - nobody could witness all this 
without realizing that CCC-ID 's "total" problem is essentially the 
total Indian problem and that such men as this Choctaw know how to 
solve it. 

And nobody could visit the blacksmith shop at Stilwell 
without realizing that native arts and crafts are living. There 
are Enrollee Jesse Foreman's wood carvings: they are spontaneous 
on his part ; they are indigenous and they are Indian. There is 
blacksmith Dick Smith's bow of Bodark wood with the squirrel hide 
bowstring. I think that Smith's favorite arrow is a symbol of our 
whole program. The arrow is a shaft of native wood with hawk's 
feathers - conventional enough. But the point is made of automo- 
bile spring steel, runs halfway up the shaft and Dalances perfect- 
ly, is like no arrowhead you ever saw before, and is in frequent 
use in regular neighborhood shoots. Smith may have obtained his 
idea from a drill-head; anyway, it is efficient. There you are - 
Smith's shooting outfit is not for tourist trade but for use; it is 
indigenous and it is Indian - twentieth century Indian. 



Cheyennes Of Tongue River Reservation , Montana , Buy Cattle 
In Texas; Discuss Ca.ttle Business 

( Note : " Indians At Work " will print, from time to time, 
interesting excerpts from local newspaper accounts of events in- 
volving Indians.) 

From the "Herald-Post" , El Paso , Texas : Four Indians, 
leaders of the Cheyenne Tribe of Lame Deer, Montana are in El Paso 
today to buy 2,000 head of cattle for their people. The Indians 
are: Pat Spotted Wolf, John Stands-In-Timber, Eugene Fisher and 
Little John Russell. Spotted Wolf sees economic independence a- 
head for the tribe. 

"This is way it should be," he said. "Indians run their 
own business." He's the fifty-one-year-old chairman of the Steer 
Enterprise Committee of the tribe. 

They will buy the cattle in the Southwest under the pro- 
visions of the Wheeler -Howard Act of 1934 through whose loan fund 
the tribes can borrow from the federal government. 

This is the second trip made by the committee. Last year, 
Stands-In-Timber and Spotted Wolf bought 1,936 head of cattle in 
the Southwest. 

"We will sell this fall about 1,500 head of the cattle we 
bought last spring," Spotted Wolf said. 

The Indians discussed the Wheeler-Howard Bill with interest. 

"Everybody in tribe shares in profits," Spotted Wolf said. 
"Good business. We like law. Some don't. We want to keep it.' 

Stands-In-Timber told of visiting the Navajos in Arizona 
en route to El Paso. "I read in magazine of Interior Department all 
about Navajos, what fine tribe they are, how fine they are doing 
with their grazing and their weaving," he said. 

"We visit them in hogans. Our conditions better." Some- 
thing like a smile played around his mouth. "We have houses, fur- 
niture. They don't. Our lend looks better. Navajos good Indians." 

The past year was the best for the tribe in eight years, 
Spotted Wolf said. The reservation embraces 500,000 acres. (April 
25, 1938.) 



Superintendent F.J. Scott writes from the Seminole Agency 
at Dania, Florida, that Seminoles took a creditable part in the 
recent state fair held at Tampa. The illustration below shows the 
fine Hereford calves which were exhibited. 

Charlie Osceola, Seminole, And Fred Montsdeoca, Indian 

Service Stockman, With the Hereford Calves Exhibited 

By The Seminoles At The Florida State Fair. 


At ius Father , 

Ha Behold, Thou, 

Wahwahte — I eat. 
Is-tewat — Look, Thou, 
Askururit-- Together we are; 
Wetah tsi ha ka wa tsi sta - 
Now we take food. 

* * * * 



By Lawrence E. Lindley, 
Washington Representative, Indian Rights Association 

The Forum on the American Indian as a special group as- 
sociated with the National Conference of Social Work will have three 
meetings during the National Conference at Seattle, Washington. 

The Forum was organized at the National Conference at At- 
lantic City in 1936 to continue the programs of the Committee on 
the American Indian of the National Conference from 1928 to 1936. 

The meetings scheduled for this year are as follows: 

Thursda y, June 30 . 2; 00 to 3:30 P.M . Dr. Henry Hoe Cloud, 
Supervisor of Indian Education, presiding officer 

1. Present -Day Problems of the Northwest Indians; 
leader, Dr. Erna Gunther, Department of Anthropology, 
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. 

2. Adult Education In An Indian Community. 
William 0. Roberts, Superintendent of Pine Eidge 
Agency . 

Thursday , June 30 . 7;00 P.M. 

At this dinner meeting the Indians in attendance at 
the Conference will give short talks about their work. 
This custom has been followed for many years. Moving 
pictures, "Presenting the Indian Problem" will be 
shown by Homer L. Morrison, Superintendent of Indian 
Education in the State of Washington, State Depart- 
ment of Education, Olympia, Washington. 

Friday , July 1. 2;00 to 3:30 P.M . 

General Topic - Cooperation In Indian Affairs. 

1. Functions of Federal and Local Agencies. 
(Speaker to be secured) 

2. Cooperation in Indian Education. 
(Speaker Jbo be secured) 

3. Cooperation in Social Security. 

Jane Hoey, Director of Bureau of Assistance, So- 
cial Security Board, Washington, D. C. 

It is planned to allow time for questions and general dis- 
cussion at all sessions. 

The work of the Forum on the American Indian is in charge 
of an Executive Committee of twenty in addition to the officers who 
are: Lawrence E. Lindley, Indian Rights Association, Chairman; Mrs. 
Henry Roe Cloud, Vice-Chairman; and Father J. B. Tennelly, Bureau 
of Catholic Indian Mission, Secretary-Treasurer. 



By John P. Watson, 
In Charge CCC-ID Safety Personnel 

the leadership of 
Instructor Edwin 
Hoklotubbe, eight- 
een men in the 
CCC-ID at the 
Five Civilized 
Tribes Agency were 
recently awarded 
American Red Cross 

aid instruction 
is mandatory in 
the program of the 
CCC Safety Division. Many projects - as for example, truck trail 
construction, the building of bridges, stock water reservoirs, im- 
pounding dams for flood control, and reforestation and fire-fight- 
ing work - are carried on in places remote from medical facilities. 
All supervisory personnel, leaders and assistant leaders, truck 
drivers and machine operators are required to hold American Red 
Cross Standard First-Aid Certificates, and all enrolled men axe 
urged to take advantage of opportunities for first-aid instruction. 

- V** 





■ 't» '"♦i jj»i A 

L>J R~-* 



<«. «-•• ■ ..-.*" 



Various Types Of Firat-Aid Treatment 


A San Francisco newspaper relates that a German seaman 
told naturalization officials in that city that his wife was afraid 
to come to California to live because of the Indians. The husband, 
who has been admitted to citizenship, explained to officials that 
his son would join him, but that so far he had been unable to per- 
suade his wife to leave home- "She read a lot of stories about the 
Indians when she was young" , he said, "and she thinks the United 
States, especially the western part, is a dangerous place." 


































0/ -H 

■H t. 

rH P! 
■H to 







Recent visitors in the Washington Office have included: 

General Superintendent Sophie D. Aberle, of the United 
Pueblos Agency in New Mexico; Superintendent H. A. Andrews, of the 
Quapaw Agency in Oklahoma; Superintendent John W. Dady, of the Mis- 
sion Agency in California; Superintendent Charles L, Ellis, of the 
Osage Agency in Oklahoma; Superintendent H. K. Meyer, of the Col- 
ville Agency in Washington; Superintendent William 0- Roberts, of 
the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota; Superintendent Claude R. 
Whitlock, of the Rosebud Agency in South Dakota; and Superintendent 
Robert Yellowtail, of the Crow Agency in Montana. 

Included in this group of recent visitors is the follow- 
ing list of tribal council members: 

Pine Ridge Tribal Council : Charles Brooks, Peter Bull 
Bear, Cornelius T. Craven, James Grass, Sr., Charles Little Hawk, 
James H. Red Cloud, Charles Spotted Bear, Henry Standing Bear, 
Thomas White Cow Killer, and Frank G. Wilson, Chairman. 

Rosebud Tribal Council : T. F. Whiting, Homer Whirlwind 
Soldier, and George H. Lamoreaux. 

Tongue River Tribal Council : William Red Cherries, Vice- 
Chairman, Charles Bear Comes Out, and Rufus Wallowing. 

The following group of Osage Indians from Oklahoma, in- 
cluding members of the Osage Tribal Council, also visited here re- 
cently: Mrs. Mamie Bolton, Robert Bolton, Fi delis Cole, Louis De 
Noya, Ralph Hamilton, Harry Kohpay, Assistant Chief, Chief Fred 
Lookout, Mrs. Fred Lookout, Thomas Leahy, John Joseph Mathews, 
Edgar McCarthy, Dick Petsemoie, George Pits, Roan Horse, John Wa- 
goshe, Mrs- Daisy Ware and her niece Edith Ware, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Abe White. 

Another group of Sioux Indians from Pine Ridge Agency 
in South Dakota also visited here. They are: Ben American Horse, 
Dan Bad Wound, Robert Bad Wound, James Holy Eagle, Oliver Left Her- 
on, Louis Roubideaux, Frank Short Horn, and Joshua Spotted Owl. 

Other visitors have included; Roley Canard, Principal 
Chief of the Creek Nation; G. B. Fulton, attorney for the Osages; 
George M. Nyce, Range Supervisor, from the Billings Office in Mon- 
tana; and Mr. H. W. Quackenbush of the Mission Agency in California. 



By George H. Blakeslee, Field Aid 
Lac Courte Oreilles Sub-Agency, Great Lakes Indian Agency, 

Ashland, Wisconsin. 

The pictures below are of John H. Lonestar and his wife, 
Rebecca Hart Lonestar, members of the St. Croix band of Chippewa 
Indians. They live on Mr. Lonestar's non-reservation, non-restricted 
allotment, about three miles south of Spooner, Wisconsin. 

From a half -acre garden tract Mr. Lonestar reports a 
crop of fifty-five bushels of potatoes; twenty bushels of sweet 
corn; one hundred pounds of dry beans; eighty squash; one hundred 
and twenty heads of cabbage; eighty pumpkins; fifteen bushels of 
tomatoes, in addition to ample quantities of carrots, beets and 
other garden vegetables. I saw the garden many times during the 
season and also saw most of the harvested crop. I can testify 
to the excellent quality of the products and to the careful, pains- 
taking and efficient methods employed in their production. 

Not only was their garden a success; of even more impor- 
tance was the thorough manner in which it was stored, canned and 
preserved for future use. 

Mrs. Lonestar not long ago proudly exhibited to me her 
crowded shelves of canned fruits, vegetables, preserves and jellies. 


She had put up in all the amazing total of 1,246 pints of fruits and 
vegetables . 

In addition she canned twenty quarts of home-grown chick- 
en, and there was a large stone jar filled with eggs, preserved in 
water glass- A large supply of wild rice was harvested nearby. 

The potatoes and most of the vegetable seeds were obtained 
from a garden loan from the tribal organization. 

By Roy E. Hawkinson 

Grey Owl, Indian author, lecturer and conservationist died 
April 13 at Beaver Lodge, Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, 
Canada. Grey Owl was born in 1888 of mixed Scottish and Indian par- 
entage. He has been a trapper, a silver miner, a forest ranger, a 
soldier in the World War, a canoeman, a packer and a guide- He gave 
up trapping in 1928, and, with nis wife, devoted the remainder of 
his life to conservation issues. He was particularly attached to 
beavers and for ten years worked toward the protection of these ani- 
mal friends of conservation. Among his books are "Pilgrims of the 
Wild", "Tales Of An Empty Cabin", "Sajo the Beaver", and "Men of 
the Last Frontier." 

The name by which he was known is the English translation 
of the Chippewa term "Wa-Sha-Quon-Asin." 


From the annual report of home economics work on the Makah 
Reservation, Neah Bay, Washington, by Mrs. Helen M. Carlson, comes 
this story of Indian enterprise. 

"Urged on by the home improvement contest, one woman who 
had six children of her own in addition to her oldest daughter's 
three, and only four rooms in her house, decided she must have more 
room. With her own hands she tore down an old building for lumber. 
She got an uncle to help her build the frame of her addition, but 
she did most of the work herself. Two new rooms were the result." 


By Clair Forrest Maynard, 
Teacher, Bear Creek Day School, Lantry, South Dakota 

The Bear Creek Day School on 
the Cheyenne River Reservation is located 
approximately four miles north of Lantry, 
and in the north and central part of the 
Cheyenne River Reservation. Across the 
creek to the north and west is the Bear 
Creek Indian village. (Some of its log 
houses and tents may be seen in the hack- 
ground of the picture on the left. ) 

This new school plant was built 
during the summer of 1935. Since then, 
we have tried to build up the school 
plant year by year. Some of our additions 
have included a root cellar , a coal shed 
and shop building combined, an iae house, 
and many small projects such as a flag- 
pole, swings, a seesaw, a well and pump 
and a school garden and fence. The labor 
for the buildings and improvements has 
been done by Indian parents who have done 

the work in return for shoes and clothing, and from grant labor. 

The teacher has helped to plan and advise the work. 

Our most recent project was the construction of the ice 
house and filling it with ice. The ice house was made underground 
with a roof constructed from logs, ash poles, willows, straw and 
dirt. Our only cost was lumber for the door-front and straw for 
packing the ice. 

Nineteen children were enrolled this year - all full- 
blood Sioux. Our school is proud of the splendid health record 
of its pupils and the total absence of trachoma or any skin disease. 
The pupils have received many compliments from Dr. Creamer on their 
general health during the three years our school has been in opera- 


Bear Creek Day School 



Commemorating The Fifth Anniver - 
sary Of CCC - Rosebud ( South Dakota ); 
Saturday, April 23, was set as the 
date for commemorating the fifth an- 
niversary of the CCC. A buffalo was 
secured from the Pine Ridge Trite 
and a feast was prepared in coopera- 
tion with the Council representatives 
of the Cut Meat, He Dog and Spotted 
Tail Communities, and served on the 
shores of the He Dog Lake. It was 
proposed to dedicate the He Dog Dam 
as a ceremonial for the occasion. 

Red Lake ( Minnesota ); On April 
5 the fifth anniversary of the CCC 
was observed at this agency. Demon- 
strations of what had been accom- 
plished since the beginning of ECW 
and CCC on this reservation took 
place. The attendance was very good 
considering the fact that the weath- 
er conditions were not very favor- 

G-rand Portage ( Consolidated Chip - 
pewa , Minnesota ); In honor of the 
fifth anniversary of CCC, "open house" 
was held here on April 5. The examin- 
ation of our records at this camp re- 
veals an impressive story of the past 
two years of operation. Many man-days 
of field labor in construction work, 
fire fighting, fire hazard reduction, 
reforestation, nursery work and game 
improvement have been expended on 
this reservation. Some enrollees 
have received training through the 
various courses taught in camp, while 
many others have attained a higher 
standard of living. 

Fort Peck ( Montana ); Comments 
were made all over the reservation 

on the very fine birthday program 
which was given by the various crews 
in honor of the fifth ^anniversary of 
CCC. The program included, in addi- 
tion to other events, the showing of 
the moving picture entitled "In Old 
Santa Fe." Other programs similar 
to this are being contemplated in 
the future to stimulate the interest 
of the crews. 

Potawatomi ( Kansas ); The field 
day demonstration originally planned 
for April 5 to celebrate the fifth 
anniversary of CCC was held on April 
22 . We had an ideal day for the dem- 
onstration and the crowd in attend- 
ance was estimated at 700. All of 
the enrollees from all four reserva- 
tions were present. A lecture was 
given by the project manager on the 
purpose of terraces, contour farming 
and shelterbelts, the principles of 
strip-cropping, purpose of masonry 
structures and other interesting and 
educational features. 

A demonstration was given of 
modern machinery and how it may 
operate over terraces- Favorable 
reports of the demonstration were 
carried in all the local newspapers. 

Work At Phoenix School ( Arizona ) 
The tree project is almost complete 
and we are getting started on the 
landscape project. W. C. Sharp . 

Construction Of The Tamarack 

Point Truck Trail Begun At Consol - 
idated Chippewa ( Minnesota ) Construc- 
tion on the Tamarack Point Truck Trail 
and the Tamarack Point Picnic Grounds 
was started recently. The picnic 


grounds are being built on a small 
point on the land which projects 
out into the lake about one-quarter 
mile. With the tall white birch 
trees as a background for the gen- 
tly sloping sand beach, this small 
point is unsurpassed in beauty by 
any place along the north shore. 
Leo M. Smith . 

Work At Five Civilized Tribes 
( Oklahoma ) Project #202: The 
clearing crew has almost completed 
the right-of-way on this project 
and will be ready for the grader 
before long. These boys have 
done splendid work this week End 
have made exceptionally good prog- 
ress. At this time of the year 
most people suffer with spring 
fever, but not so with our boys. 
This fine spring weather seems 
to have given them extra energy 
and they are getting the job done 
in a big way. They are to be com- 
plimented on the way they have been 
working. Louis A. Javine . 

Range Revegetation At Chilocco 
School ( Oklahoma ) Twenty-four acres 
were seeded and sodded back to range 
this week. This completes one hun- 
dred and one acres that have been 
seeded and sodded back to range this 
month. Achan Pappan . 

Rodent Control At Pyramid Lake 
( Car son , Nevada ) On the rodent con- 
trol project, some 180 gophers were 
trapped. Some repair work was done 
on the Seven-Mile Range Rider's Cab- 
in, putting the building in good 
shape. Mr. William Joaquin, Jr., 
with a crew of nine men, stayed at 
Pyramid Lake to complete the work of 
spring development , while the remain- 
der of the enrollees moved to the new 
CCC camp at Reese River. While mov- 

ing took place, local Nixon men stayed 
on the job to complete the projects. 
Frank M. Parcher . 

Project #11 Completed At Sells 
( Arizona ) Project #11 was completed 
this week. The Indians at Cockleburr 
seem quite pleased with the work and 
are anxious for the summer rains to 
start so that they can try out the 
new improvements made on their flood 
irrigation project. M. J. Nolan . 

Recreational Activities At Con - 
solidated Chippewa ( Minnesota )Sprjng 
is here and with it come more hours 
of daylight, which bring more out- 
door sports such as baseball and horse- 
shoe pitching. From the time the men 
leave the supper table, until dark, 
one can hear the clang of horseshoes. 
Arguments can be heard. "Who made 
that ringer?" "That's my shoe." Then 
out comes the old straw; each shoe 
must be measured to see which one is 
nearest the peg. James W. McCutcheon . 

Erection Of Storage House Begun 
At Tomah ( Wisconsin ) The erection 
of a dynamite storage house has been, 
started here. Heretofore we have 
been using the powder house at Keshena, 
which made powder storage a hazardous 
problem. Special attention has been 
given to the location of this storage 
house in order to safeguard the com- 
munity from danger. 

A small grader was loaned to us 
by the Menominee CCC Unit to aid us 
in trail construction. Cooperation 
from this nearby unit has been of un- 
told value. 

The bridge across the Red River 
is taking on the appearance of an 
accomplishment worthy of our efforts. 
The men have been quite enthusiastic 


about this project because of the 
fact that it was the only unfinished 
part of the truck trail completed 
last fall. About 400 yards of rock 
and dirt were moved into th* ap- 
proaches this week. The 70 cater- 
pillar and scraper is getting a 
good workout on this job. Kenneth 
G. Abert . 

Four men of this unit attended 
the Caterpillar School at Green Bay 
this week. They reported that the 
trip was very interesting and helped 
them a great deal in understanding 
the new and older type tractors. 

Camp Maintenance At Chin Lee 
(Navajo - Arizona ) Everyone in camp 
this week was busy cleaning their 
barracks and camp grounds each eve- 
ning. Much improvement has been 
shown within the past few weeks. 

In the future, we will have a 
new camp system. Bach enrollee will 
have a certain number of duties to 
perform in camp, and in this manner, 
everyone will have an equal share 
in the upkeep of the camp . The boys 
work hard all day long, but they re- 
spond to any duty call which is is- 
sued in camp. This is very much ap- 
preciated by all concerned. The 
camp looks clean and neat and every- 
body enjoys living in a nice clean 
and healthy place. W. B. Lorentino, 
Leader . 

Timberstand Improvement At Ke- 
shena ( Wisconsin ) The timberstand 
improvement crews have been going 
over part of the area worked last 
winter and cleaning up some of the 
slash and wood. About fifty large 
loads of wood have been gathered up 
and hauled in. 

Recently, all the machine oper- 

ators attended the Caterpillar School 
at Green Bay. The trip proved to be 
educational as well as recreational. 
Walter Ridlington , Project Manager . . 

Maintenance Of Winding Stair 
Mountain Truck Trail At Choctaw-Chick - 
asaw Sanatorium ( Oklahoma ) Work was 
started on the maintenance of Wind- 
ing Stair Mountain Truck Trail in 
the early part of April and good re- 
sults are being obtained. Due to the 
heavy rainfall in this section dur- 
ing the month of April, the trail 
was washed out considerably, making 
it very rough. This is a winding 
mountain trail which is very steep 
in places and washes out easily aft- 
er heavy rains. 

It is very important, from a 
fire protection point of view, since 
men may be quickly transported over 
this trail when fires threaten from 1 
that side of the reserve. Tony Whit - 
lock . Leader. 

Baseball Activities Begun At 
Northern Idaho ( Idaho ) Due to the 
fact that the baseball season has 
started, the boys are busy practic- 
ing for their games to be played 
this year. We should have a pretty 
good team and we believe that we will 
be able to "take" most of the regu- 
lar CCC teams in this area. Harold 
R. Wing , Project Manager . 

Terrace Construction At Potawa - 
tomi ( Kansas ) The terracing crew is 
progressing rapidly with the terrace 
construction work and will be finish- 
ed very soon, at which time we will 
move the power machinery to another 
reservation for operation. One crew 
is making concrete blocks to be used 
in terrace outlets and another crew 
is constructing terrace outlet struc- 
tures. P. Bverett Sperry . 



3 9088 01625 0433